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For beginners
How to become a Ham ?
Any individual above the age of 12 is permitted to appear for Amateur Station Operator License Examination conducted by Ministry of Communications. One should qualify a simple test conducted in three subjects namely I) Morse Code (Transmission & Reception) ii) Communication Procedure iii) Basic Electronics. The Officer-In-Charge, Wireless Monitoring Station, Dept. of Telecommunication under Ministry of Communication, Govt. of India is the authority for conducting these tests in their own town provided there are sufficient number of applicants. The licenses are issued by Wireless Planning & Co-ordination Wing of DOT, Govt. of India after passing the test in any of the following grades: Restricted Grade II -Permitting use of VHF/UHF only (i.e Walkie-Talkies). Grade II - Permitting HF/VHF/UHF frequencies but with limited transmitting power. Grade I- Permitting all amateur frequencies with higher power including latest techniques. Advance Grade- Permitting higher power and advanced techniques including Satellite Communication. The Morse Code of 5 words per minutes sending-receiving will make eligible to get grade-II and 12 words per minutes sending-receiving will get grade-I. For advanced grade higher level of technical knowledge in electronics is essentially required. It takes just two months (say two hours a day training) to become eligible for the examination. Any Indian citizen over 12 years of age is eligible to write the test and No Educational qualification is prescribed. Basic knowledge can be obtained by purchasing study manuals, books on Morse Code from NIAR. There are many ways to go about preparing for and taking your ham radio license test. •Local clubs - For those that like a structured approach, many clubs organize meetings and classes to teach the basic skills of radio operation and prepare people for their ham radio license test. At the end of the classes, a test is given. If you pass, you're a ham! •Self-study - It doesn't seem right to tell you about going it alone, because then you're not doing it all by yourself! Taking a class is a far better way to get your license; and when you pass your test you will already have friends to talk to. But if you insist, I feel obliged to tell you how to do it because this is the way I did it.
Who issues Amateur Radio License in India ?
 
Amateur Radio License in India are licensed by the Wireless Planning & Coordination wing of Ministry of Communications, Govt. of India and enjoy a far more privileges of radio operation than "CB" radio operators do. With these privileges come responsibilities and rules for the operation of an amateur radio station. Specifically, there are a few things that hams are not allowed to do: 1) Hams are not allowed to do anything with their radios that makes them money in way. Ham radio is a hobby. 2) Ham radio operator cannot `broadcast' to the public. This means that ham radio transmissions are meant to be received by other ham radio operators. While a short-wave radios will allow you to listen to the ham radio bands, what you will hear is hams talking to other hams and not music or other radio programs of `general' interest. Within these (and other) guidelines, however, hams are empowered to do just about everything that government and private radio stations are allowed to do.
Detailed syllabus Part-I Section I
 
Radio Theory and Practice Elementary electricity and magnetism Elementary theory of electricity, conductors and insulators, units, Ohm's law, resistance in-series and parallel, conductance, power and energy, permanent magnets and electromagnets and their use in radio work; self and mutual inductance; types of inductors used in receiving and transmitting circuits, capacitance; construction of various types of capacitors and their arrangements in series and/or parallel. Elementary theory of alternating currents Sinusoidal alternating quantities-peak, instantaneous, RMS, average values, phase; reactance, impedance; series and parallel circuits containing resistance, inductance, capacitance; power factor, resonance in series and parallel circuits; coupled circuits; transformers for audio and radio frequencies. Thermionic Valves Construction of valves; thermionic emission, characteristic curves, diodes, triodes and multi-electrode valves; use of valves as rectifiers, oscillators, amplifiers, detectors and frequency changers, power packs, stabilization and smoothing. Elementary theory and construction of semiconductor devices Diodes and Transistors. Radio receivers Principles and operation of TRF and superheterodyne receivers, CW reception, receiver VA, WA, WB. The written examination for Grade II licence is of one hours duration. The maximum number of marks is 100. Candidates must secure at least 40 per cent in each section and 50 per cent in aggregate to pass. The syllabus for Grade I licence is the same as that for Grade II licence, but the written examination for Grade I licence is of two hours duration. The maximum number of marks is 100 and candidates must secure at least 50 per cent in each section and 55 per cent in aggregate for a pass. Part II : MORSE CODE (a) Section I : Morse receiving (Speed: 5 words per minute) The test piece will consist of a plain language passage of 125 letters, five letters counting as one word. Candidates are required to receive for five consecutive minutes at the speed of 5 words per minute from a double headgear headphone receiver, international Morse code signals from an audio frequency oscillator keyed either manually or automatically. A short practice piece may be sent at the prescribed speed before the start of the actual test. Candidates will not be allowed more than one attempt in each test. The test may be written in ink or pencil but must be legible. Bad handwriting and over-writing will render a candidate liable to disqualification. More than five errors will disqualify a candidate. (b) Section II : Morse Sending (Speed: 5 words per minute) The test piece will consist of a plain language passage of 125 letters, five letters counting as one word. Candidates are required to send on an ordinary key for five consecutive minutes at the minimum speed of five words per minute. A short practice piece may be allowed before the actual test. Candidates will not be allowed more than one attempt in the test. Efforts should be made to correct all errors. However, more than five uncorrected errors will disqualify a candidate. The accuracy of signaling, correct formation of characters and the correctness of spacing shall be taken into account. A candidate is required to pass both in Part I and Part II. In the case of candidates qualifying in Part I only, the licence shall be restricted to radiotelephone operations in the VHF ham band only. characteristics-sensitivity, selectivity, fidelity; adjacent channel and image interference; AVC and squelch circuits; signal to noise ratio. Transmitter Principles and operation of low power transmitter; crystal oscillators, stability of oscillators. Radio propagation Wavelength, frequency, nature and propagation of radio waves; ground and sky waves; skip distance; fading. Aerials Common types of transmitting and receiving aerials. Frequency measurement Measurement of frequency and use of simple frequency meters. SECTION II : Radio Regulations (a) Knowledge of : (i) the Indian Wireless Telegraph Rules, 1973; and (ii) the Indian Wireless Telegraphs (Amateur Service) Rules, 1978. (b) Knowledge of International Radio Regulations as relating to the operation of amateur stations with particular emphasis on the following: Designation of Emission, Nomenclature of the frequency and wavelength, Frequency allocation to amateur radio service, Measures against Interference, Interference and tests, Identification of stations, distress and urgency transmissions, Amateur Stations, Phonetic alphabets and figure code. (c) Standard frequency and time signal services in the world. (d) The following 'Q' codes and abbreviations which shall have meaning as assigned to them in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) convention : QRA, QRG, QRH, QRI, QRK, QRL, QRM, QRN, QRQ, QRS, QRT, QRU, QRV, QRW, QRX, QRZ, QSA, QSB, QSL, QSL, QSO, QSU, QSV, QSW, QSX, QSY, QSZ, QTC, QTH, QTR and QUM. Telegraphic (Morse code) abbreviations: AA, AB, AR, AS, BT, C, CFM, CL, CQ, DE, K, KN, NIL, OK, R, TU, Morse Code test for Grade I Receiving-(Speed: 12 words per minute) The test piece will consist of a plain language passage of 300 characters which may comprise letters, figures and punctuation (punctuation are indicated below). The average words shall contain five characters and each figure and punctuation will be counted as two characters. Candidates are required to receive for five consecutive minutes at a speed of 12 words per minute. Other conditions are the same as applicable to Grade II Examination. Punctuations Full stop, Comma, Semi-colon, Break sign (BT), Hyphen and Question mark. Sending-(Speed: 12 words per minute) The test piece will be similar to Morse receiving test. Candidates are required to send for five consecutive minutes at a speed not less than 12 words per minute. Other conditions are the same as applicable to Grade II examination. A candidate is required to pass both in Part I and Part II simultaneously. Advanced Amateur Station Operators' Examination Part I-Written Test (a) Section 1: Radio Theory and Practice In addition to the syllabus prescribed for Grade II Examination, following items shall be included in the syllabus of Advanced Amateur Station Operators' Examinations :-( i) Motors and generators: Elementary principles and construction of alternators, motors and generators. (ii) Alternating current: Construction of transformers, transformer losses, transformer as a matching device. (iii) Measuring instruments: Moving coil and moving iron meters, frequency meters. (iv) Semiconductor devices and transistors: Elementary principles of conduction and construction, symbols, biasing methods. (v) Power supplies: Halfwave and fullwave rectifiers, smoothing and regulation, bridge rectifier. (vi) Modulation: Principles of frequency modulation. (vii) Transmitters and receivers: Elementary principles of transmission and reception of facsimile and television signals, elementary principles of transmitters and receivers employing single side band. (viii) Propagation: Characteristics of ionosphere and troposphere. Properties of different reflecting layers, optimum working frequency, day and night frequencies. (ix) Aerials: Principles of radiation, aerials for different frequency bands including aerials for microwave. (x) Space communications: Elementary principles of communication via satellite. (b) Section 2: Radio Regulations Syllabus is same as prescribed for Grade II Examination. The test is of 3 hours duration. The maximum number of marks is 100 and candidate must secure at least 50 per cent in each section and 60 per cent in aggregate for a pass. Part II- Morse Code Syllabus is same as prescribed for Grade I Examination. Part-III Radio Theory and Practice A. Elementary Theory of Electricity & Magnetism.
Where do I get Study Material ?
 
Contact QARL for asistance
 
Who conducts ASOC Examinations in India ?
 
The Officer-In-Charge, Wireless Monitoring Station, Dept. of Telecommunication under Ministry of Communication, Govt. of India is the authority for conducting these tests in their own town provided there are sufficient number of applicants. The licenses are issued by Wireless Planning & Co-ordination Wing of DOT, Govt. of India after passing the test in any of the following grades: Restricted Grade II -Permitting use of VHF/UHF only (i.e Walkie-Talkies). Grade II - Permitting HF/VHF/UHF frequencies but with limited transmitting power. Grade I- Permitting all amateur frequencies with higher power including latest techniques. Advance Grade- Permitting higher power and advanced techniques including Satellite Communication. The Morse Code of 5 words per minutes sending-receiving will make eligible to get grade-II and 12 words per minutes sending-receiving will get grade-I. For advanced grade higher level of technical knowledge in electronics is essentially required.
Where To Take Your Exam Once you are prepared to take the examination(s).
You'll want to find out where to take the test. Tests are administered by Monitoring stations of Min. of commns. throughout the country. A nominal fee is charged to cover the costs of the testing. There are several ways to locate a test session. If you know a local ham, ask him or her about local testing opportunities. Where to take Ham Radio License Examinations The place and schedule will be decided by the respective Monitoring Stations. Don't be nervous or anxious about your test. If for some reason you don't succeed on the first try, you are welcome to retake the tests in the future any number of times until you finally succeed. Keep at it !
The exam fee is as follows
 
Grade II & Restricted Grade II Rs.10 each Grade I Rs.20 and Advance Grade Rs.25 The exam fee should be paid in the form of Demand Draft drawn only from State bank of India in favour of "Pay & Accounts Officer (Head Quarters), Department of Telecommunications, New Delhi" and payable at New Delhi service Branch No:7687
 
Setting Up A Station - Buying Your First Radio !
I'll assume that you have just passed the Restricted Grade-II class "no code" license and are looking for a first radio. Most Amateurs purchase a handheld VHF or UHF (or a combined "dual-band" VHF+UHF) radio. You can optionally connect an external antenna at your home for extended range. A mere handheld, running low power, is sufficient to gain access to most local repeaters so this is plenty to get you started. There are several International brands that sell their Amateur Radio equipment in India with network chain of Dealers and sub-dealers. You could buy any equipment that fits in your budget across the shelf from these dealers. The price of which can be obtained from them directly, which widely ranges from Model, Make, Manufacturer and features. However, some popular brands are Kenwood, ICOM, Yaesu etc. Amateur Radio Transceivers can be made by enthusiasts with locally available components. Several Hams have come up with their circuit design, PCBs and construction of low cost Amateur Radio equipment.
Building Your Own Radio !
 
Building your own radio is also an option. You can build inexpensive kits, especially for use on HF frequencies, but there are also kits available for the VHF and UHF bands. For most people, kits are a better choice than trying to "roll your own" from scratch. The nature of how electronic parts are sold makes it more cost effective to buy a pre-packaged kit containing all the parts than to try and buy all the parts you might need, individually. Kits are especially popular for "QRP" or low power radio operation. While 100 watt (or more) radios are popular for HF operation, you can have a lot of fun with a radio operating at the 1 to 10 watt level, and make contacts out to thousands of miles. Many inexpensive, low power HF radio kits are available.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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